Hans Asperger saved autistic children from Nazi death camps. Steve Silberman related the story:

The children in Asperger’s clinic immediately became targets of the Nazi eugenic programs and, in fact, one of Asperger’s former colleagues was actually the leader of a secret extermination program against disabled children that became the dry run for the Holocaust. So the Nazis actually developed methods of mass killing by practicing on disabled children and children with hereditary conditions like autism (even though it didn’t have a name yet), epilepsy, schizophrenia. So immediately Asperger had to figure out ways of protecting the children in his clinic. … One of the ways he did that was to present to the Nazis in the very first public talk on autism in history his “most promising cases” and that is where the idea of so-called high functioning versus low-functioning autistic people comes from really — it comes from Asperger’s attempt to save the lives of the children in his clinic. …

In fact, the Gestapo came to his clinic three times to arrest Asperger and to ship the children in his clinic off to concentration camps or kill them at a so-called children’s killing ward. But [the Gestapo officer] had affection for Asperger, he thought he was very good at what he did, so he saved Asperger’s life and so that’s how Asperger survived the war.

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2015/09/02/436742377/neurotribes-examines-the-history-and-myths-of-the-autism-spectrum

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